When it rains, water moves over the land and through the soil. It gathers to form water supplies. Some water supplies are on the land, such as rivers and lakes. Other water supplies are under the ground. A clean and reliable water supply is very important for health and the economy.
Kalimantan is home to many river systems and watersheds.
The forests are important for keeping the quality of water in these rivers good.
In many places, there is not enough water, because people use too much water or they waste water. Some water supplies are of poor quality because activities make the water dirty.
To get a clean and reliable water supply, we must look after our watersheds. A watershed is the area of land where the rain water moves into a stream for the water supply. The way the land is used in the watershed affects the water quality. Usually, water from forested lands is very high quality.
Making high-quality water is the most important thing that forests do for our water supply. Forests keep water clean in several ways:
Forests also help balance the flow of water in the ground. Forests use a lot of water, but forest soil can store a lot of water too. This water is then slowly released into the ground.
Like everything in nature, watersheds are very complex, so the water supply depends on many factors. However, logging can harm water quality.
Logging increases the risk of erosion and it can make more sediment. One way to reduce this risk is to practice selective logging or reduced impact logging.
Transporting the logs also increases the risk of erosion and makes more sediment. Fuels used for logging machinery and for trucks can pollute the water supply.